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هل من متطوع للمساعدة في ترجمة هذه الصفحة في ويكيبيديا

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هل من متطوع للمساعدة في ترجمة هذه الصفحة في ويكيبيديا


الاعضاء الاعزاء

منذ مدة اريد ترجمة هذه الصفحة للعربية لكن المقال طويل فهل من مساعدين يقتسمون معي العمل على مهل
و شكرا

بعدها سنقوم بنشر الترجمة في سايكوجين و في ويكيبيديا

الرابط
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyperborea


المقال
Arctic continent on the Gerardus Mercator map of 1595.

In Greek mythology the Hyperboreans (Ancient Greek: Ὑπερβόρε(ι)οι,pronounced [hyperbóre(ː)ɔi̯]; Latin: Hyperborei) were a mythical race of giants who lived "beyond the North Wind". The Greeks thought that Boreas, the god of the North Wind (one of the Anemoi, or "Winds") lived in Thrace, and therefore Hyperborea indicates a region that lay far to the north of Thrace.

This land was supposed to be perfect, with the sun shining twenty-four hours a day, which to modern ears suggests a possible location within the Arctic Circle during the Midnight Sun-time of year. However, it is also possible that Hyperborea had no real physical location at all, for according to the classical Greek poet Pindar,

neither by ship nor on foot would you findthe marvellous road to the assembly of the Hyperboreans.

Pindar also described the otherworldly perfection of the Hyperboreans:

Never the Muse is absentfrom their ways: lyres clash and flutes cryand everywhere maiden choruses whirling.Neither disease nor bitter old age is mixedin their sacred blood; far from labor and battle they live.[1]

Contents

Early sourcesEdit

HerodotusEdit

The earliest extant source that mentions Hyperborea in detail, Herodotus's Histories (Book IV, Chapters 32–36),[2] dates from circa 450 BC.[3]However, Herodotus recorded three earlier sources that supposedly mentioned the Hyperboreans, including Hesiod and Homer, the latter purportedly having written of Hyperborea in his lost work Epigoni: "if that be really a work of his". Herodotus also wrote that the 7th-century BC poet Aristeas wrote of the Hyperboreans in a poem (now lost) called Arimaspea about a journey to the Issedones, who are estimated to have lived in the Kazakh Steppe.[4] Beyond these lived the one-eyed Arimaspians, further on the gold-guarding griffins, and beyond these the Hyperboreans.[5] Herodotus assumed that Hyperborea lay somewhere in Northeast Asia.

Pindar, Simonides of Ceos and Hellanicus of Lesbos, contemporaries of Herodotus in the 5th century BC, each briefly described or referenced the Hyperboreans in their works.[6]

Location of HyperboreaEdit

The Hyperboreans were believed to live beyond the snowy Riphean Mountains.

According to Pausanias: "The land of the Hyperboreans, men living beyond the home of Boreas."[7]

Homer placed Boreas in Thrace, and therefore Hyperborea was in his opinion north of Thrace, in Dacia.[8]

Sophocles (Antigone, 980–987), Aeschylus (Agamemnon, 193; 651), Simonides of Ceos (Schol. on Apollonius Rhodius, 1. 121) andCallimachus (Delian, [IV] 65) also placed Boreas in Thrace.[9] Other ancient writers however believed the home of Boreas or the Riphean Mountains were in a different location. For example, Hecataeus of Miletus believed that the Riphean Mountains were adjacent to the Black Sea.[8] Alternatively Pindar placed the home of Boreas, the Riphean Mountains and Hyperborea all near the Danube.[10] Heraclides Ponticusand Antimachus in contrast identified the Riphean Mountains with the Alps, and the Hyperboreans as a Celtic tribe (perhaps the Helvetii) who lived just beyond them.[11] Aristotle placed the Riphean mountains on the borders of Scythia, and Hyperborea further north.[12]Hecataeus of Abdera and others believed Hyperborea was Britain (see below).

Later Roman and Greek sources continued to change the location of the Riphean mountains, the home of Boreas, as well as Hyperborea, supposedly located beyond them. However all these sources agreed these were all in the far north of Greece or southern Europe.[13] The ancient grammarian Simmias of Rhodes in the 3rd century BC connected the Hyperboreans to the Massagetae[14] and Posidonius in the 1st century BC to the Western Celts, but Pomponius Mela placed them even further north in the vicinity of the Arctic.[15]

In maps based on reference points and descriptions given by Strabo,[16] Hyperborea, shown variously as a peninsula or island, is located beyond what is now France, and stretches further north-south than east-west.[17] Other descriptions put it in the general area of the Ural Mountains.

Another version exists: Hyperborea was located in the Murmansk region of Russia

Later classical sourcesEdit

Plutarch, writing in the 1st century AD, connected the Hyperboreans with the Gauls who had sacked Rome in the 4th century BC (see Battle of the Allia).[18]

Aelian, Diodorus Siculus and Stephen of Byzantium all recorded important ancient Greek sources on Hyperborea, but added no new descriptions.[19]

The 2nd century AD Stoic philosopher Hierocles equated the Hyperboreans with the Scythians, and the Riphean Mountains with the Ural Mountains.[20] Clement of Alexandria and other early Christian writers also made this same Scythian equation.[21]

Ancient identification with BritainEdit

Hyperborea was identified with Britain first by Hecataeus of Abdera in the 4th century BC, as in a preserved fragment by Diodorus Siculus:

In the regions beyond the land of the Celts there lies in the ocean an island no smaller than Sicily. This island, the account continues, is situated in the north and is inhabited by the Hyperboreans, who are called by that name because their home is beyond the point whence the north wind (Boreas) blows; and the island is both fertile and productive of every crop, and has an unusually temperate climate.[22]

Hecateaus of Abdera also wrote that the Hyperboreans had on their island "a magnificent sacred precinct of Apollo and a notable temple which is adorned with many votive offerings and is spherical in shape". Some scholars have identified this temple with Stonehenge.[19][23]Diodorus, however, does not identify Hyperborea with Britain, and his description of Britain (5.21-23) makes no mention of the Hyperboreans or their spherical temple. (See the section "Legends" below.)

Pseudo-Scymnus, around 90 BC, wrote that Boreas dwelled at the extremity of Gaulish territory, and that he had a pillar erected in his name on the edge of the sea (Periegesis, 183). Some have claimed this is a geographical reference to northern France, and Hyperborea as the British Isles which lay just beyond the English Channel.[24]

Ptolemy (Geographia, 2. 21) and Marcian of Heraclea (Periplus, 2. 42) both placed Hyperborea in the North Sea which they called the "Hyperborean Ocean".[25]

In his 1726 work on the druids, John Toland specifically identified Diodorus' Hyperborea with the Isle of Lewis, and the spherical temple with the Callanish Stones.[26]

LegendsEdit

Along with Thule, Hyperborea was one of several terrae incognitae to the Greeks and Romans, where Pliny, Pindar and Herodotus, as well asVirgil and Cicero, reported that people lived to the age of one thousand and enjoyed lives of complete happiness. Hecataeus of Abderacollated all the stories about the Hyperboreans current in the fourth century BC and published a lengthy treatise on them, lost to us, but noted by Diodorus Siculus (ii.47.1–2).[27] Also, the sun was supposed to rise and set only once a year in Hyperborea; which would place it above or upon the Arctic Circle, or, more generally, in the arctic polar regions.

The ancient Greek writer Theopompus in his work Philippica claimed Hyperborea was once planned to be conquered by a large race of soldiers from another island (some have claimed this was Atlantis), the plan though was abandoned because the soldiers from Meropis realized the Hyperboreans were too strong for them and the most blessed of people; this unusual tale, which some believe was satire or comedy, was preserved by Aelian (Varia Historia, 3. 18).

Theseus visited the Hyperboreans, and Pindar transferred Perseus's encounter with Medusa there from its traditional site in Libya, to the dissatisfaction of his Alexandrian editors.[28]

Apollonius wrote that the Argonauts sighted Hyperborea, when they sailed through Eridanos.

Hyperboreans in DelosEdit



On this 1570 map, Hyperborea is shown as an Arctic continent and described as "Terra Septemtrionalis Incognita" (Unknown Northern Land). Notice the similarities in the continent to that of Mercator's map above.

Alone among the Twelve Olympians, Apollo was venerated among the Hyperboreans, the Hellenes thought: he spent his winter amongst them.[29] According to Herodotus, offerings from the Hyperboreans came to Scythia packed with straw, and they were passed from tribe to tribe until they arrived at Dodona and from them to other Greek peoples until they to came to Apollo's temple on Delos. He says they used this method because the first time the gifts were brought by two maidens, Hyperoche and Laodice, with a escort of five men, but none of them returned. To prevent that, since then the Hyperboreans brought the gifts to their borders and asked they neighbours to deliver them to the next country and so on until they arrived to Delos.[30]

Herodotus also details that other two virgin maidens, Arge and Opis, had come from Hyperborea to Delos before, as a tribute to the goddess Ilithyia for ease of child-bearing, accompanied by the gods themselves. The maidens received honours in Delos, where the women collected gifts from them and sang hymns to them. [30]

Abaris the HyperboreanEdit

Main article: Abaris the Hyperborean

A particular Hyperborean legendary healer was known as "Abaris" or "Abaris the Healer" whom Herodotus first described in his works. Plato (Charmides, 158C) regarded Abaris as a physician from the far north, while Strabo reported Abaris was Scythian like the early philosopherAnacharsis (Geographica, 7. 3. 8).

Physical appearance
 
يبدو كذلك ان هناك اشياء اضافية تستحق الاهتمام في صفحة ويكيبيديا الفرنسية
(ليت الاخت لينا تفيدنا في ذلك)


https://fr.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyperboréens


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اطلانتس و هيباربوريا



اثار السيد بول لوكور في اطلانتس1929ء الملاحظة التي كتبناها في مقالنا الماضي في شهر ماي، التي اكدنا فيها وجوب التفرقة بين اطلانتس و هيباربويا، ضد من يريد ان يجمع بينهما بالحديث عن اطلانتس الهيباربوربة، و ليس السيد لوكور وحده من يقع في هذا الخلط بل نجد ايضا السيد هرمان ويرث صاحب كتاب مهم حول اصول الانسانية ظهر حديثا في المانيا، و الذي يستعما عبارة شمالأطلسية كي يحدد المنطقة التي تمثل نقطة انطلاق لاصل التقاليد الانسانية، و اننا نتساءل كيف وقع السيد لاكور التأويل الخاطئ الذي يتحدث عن التحول المفترض لموقع القطب في بداية طور المانفانتارا التي نحن فيها ، لاننا لم نتحدث عن الموقع ابدا، اولا لان ذلك يمثل شيئا ثانويا في بحثنا، ثانيا لانه من الصعب تحديدها بالنسبة لمواقع انتشار اليابسة الحالي.كما يضيف السيد لاكور شيئا اخر، وهو الاقرار بان اصل تقاليدنا هي غربية، شيء لا نقره ابدا لان العبارة التي استعملناها كانت قطبية و ليس غربية، و القطب حسب علمنا ليس فيه شرق او غرب،و لعل هذا الخلط مرتبط بمسألة انحراف محور الارض، وهو شيء لم يكن موجودا في الاصل حسب المعطيات التقليدية، و لكنه كان نتيجة لما نصطلح عليه ب انحطاط الانسان، بمعنى انه فقط في حقبة معينة وقع تحويل مركز التقاليد الاصلي الى منطقة اخرى ، شرقية طورا او غربية تارة اخرى في البداية، لكن مما لاشك فيه انها كانت شرقية في الحقبة الاخيرة التي تمتد الى العصر الذي نعيش فيه انطلاقا من الحقب المصطلح عليها بالتاريخية، لانها الوحيدة المفتوحة للبحث العلمي المتعارف عليه.

كما انه على عكس ما اشار اليه السيد لاكور من ان النتائج التي توصلنا اليها في ابحاثنا حول التقاليد الهندوسية هي سبب ما نسبه اليها، فنحن في الحقيقة نعتمد القول ان الاصل القطبي وارد في الفيدا تصريحا و في العديد من الكتب المقدسة الاخرى، الارض التي تدور الشمس في افقها دون ان تغرب كما في الفيدا، من المفترض ان تكون في مكان ما قرب القطب، او عند القطب نفسه، كما ورد تصريحا كذلك انه في زمن متأخر عن ذلك، ممثلوا التقليد الاصلي تحولوا او حولوا الى منطقة اخرى كان فيها اليوم الاطول يساوي ضعف اليوم الاقصر ، و هذا طبعا في حقبة متاخرة و مكان اخر لا علاقة له بهيباربوريا، و النقطة التي اتفق فيها مع السيد لوكور ، هي التمييز بين اطلانتس شمالية و جنوبية،لعلهما لم تكونا منفصلتين في البداية، و لكن حتى اطلانتس الشمالية لم يكن فيها شيء من هيباربوريا.

و الذي يزيد من تعقيد المسألة هو ان نفس التسميات اطلقت على مناطق مختلفة عبر تلك الحقب الغابرة، و قد توسعنا في بعض نواحي هذه المسألة في مؤلفنا – ملك العالمء و قد حررنا بوضوح انه يجب يمييز تولا الاطلانتيسية المكان الاصلي للتوليين، التي كانت ربما في اطلانتس الشمالية، عن تولا الهيباربورية، التي ينطبق عليها اسم الجزيرة المقدسة في التقليد و النصوص المقدسة التي تناولناها بالدرس.

و بالنسبو لتولا الاطلانتيسية فقد اشرنا في مقالنا الجغرافي في مجلة المناظرات بتاريخ 22 جانفي 1929، حول هنود برزخ بنما الذين قاموا بثورة عام 1925 و انشؤوا جمهورية تولا المستقلة، و كان علمها الرسمي عبارة عن سواستيكا فوق خلفية برتقالية بحدود حمراء، و هذا يدل على انه مازال في امريكا الجنوبية تقاليد و معتقدات جديرة بالدرس اكثر مما نتوقع

aaf811be-d81f-dffb-0000-01681dda952a




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